This branch takes geology students through the dynamics that shape our coastline including beach health, beach formation, coast erosion and other processes taking place in or near the oceans. Economic mineral deposits occurring off-shore are appraised in this theme. Marine geology and oceanography involve geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological and paleontological investigations of the ocean floor and coastal margins. Marine geological studies are of extreme importance in providing the critical evidence for plate tectonics and sea floor spreading. The deep ocean floor is the last essentially unexplored frontier and detailed mapping in support of both military (submarine) objectives and economic objectives drives the theme.