It introduces students to two very important areas in geology. Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of seismic waves through the earth or through other planet-like bodies. The field also includes studies of earthquake effects, as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, oceanic, atmospheric, and artificial processes (such as explosions). Applied geophysics uses surface methods to measure the physical properties of the earth subsurface, along with the anomalies in these properties, in order to detect or infer the presence and position of ore minerals, hydrocarbons, geothermal reservoirs, groundwater reservoirs, and other geological structures. Applied geophysics can be used to directly detect the target style of mineralization, through measuring its physical properties directly. For example one may measure the density contrasts between iron ore and silicate wall rocks, or may measure the electrical conductivity contrast between conductive sulfide mineral and barren silicate minerals.